1. The property of householders is of three kinds:
2. White, mottled, and black.
3. By those obsequies which a man performs with white property, he causes (his departed ancestor) to be born again as a god.
4. By performing them with mottled property, he causes him to be born as a man.
5. By performing them with black property, he causes him to be born as an animal.
6. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of their own caste, by members of any caste, is called 'white.'
7. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of the caste next below in order to their own, is called 'mottled.'
8. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of a caste by two or more degrees lower than their own, is called 'black.'
9. What has been inherited, friendly gifts, and
[LVIII. 1, 2. Nārada 3, 46.--9-12. Nārada 3, 53, 47-49, 51.
1. As the obligations of a householder, which will be discussed further on (in LIX), cannot be fulfilled without a certain amount of wealth, he discusses in the present chapter the origin of wealth. (Nand.)]
the dowry of a wife, that is called white property, for members of any caste indiscriminately.
10. What has been acquired as a bribe, as a fee (for crossing a river and the like, or for a bride, &c.), or by the sale of forbidden articles (such as lac, or salt), or as a return for a benefit conferred, is denoted 'mottled wealth.'
11. What has been acquired by servile attendance, by gambling, by thieving, by begging, by deceit (as if a man says that he wants a present for another and takes it himself, or by forging gold or other metals), by robbery, or by fraud (as if a man shows one thing to a purchaser and delivers another to him instead), is called 'black property.'
12. Whatever a man may do (in this world) with anything (he has, whether white, mottled, or black property) he will get his reward accordingly; both in the next world and in this.