|Knowledge acquired or confirmed by
listening to the teachings and expositions of Iearned men was a major division of learning
in our ancient system, apart from knowledge acquired by study. This is called in Tamil,
and the phrase kalvikelvi expresses the complete accomplishment of a learned man.
Listening as a means of learning is
particularly prescribed for the illiterate. It will be a staff to lean upon when beset by
But the teacher should not only be learned
but one who leads the right life. Indeed the latter is more important.
The oral precepts of a teacher who leads a
good life help one as a staff helps the weak to walk.
Mere learning is not knowledge. The man of
knowledge is one who has learning and guides his life aright.