Empire of the Bharashivas included Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Vindhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Madhya Bharat, Rajasthan and the Mudra Republics in East Punjab.2 In the middle of the
third century, the Vakatakas rose to power, of whom Pravarasena was recognised as the
Emperor of Aryavarta.
The rise of the
Bharashivas represented a national upsurge to deliver the country from the foreign
rule of the Shakas and the Kushanas. Of this resurgence, God Shiva was the symbol and the
guardian. "We find Shiva everywhere in this period," says Jayaswal.
2 K, P. Jayaswal, History of India, p. 55.