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Kural - The Great Book Of Tiru-Valluvar





Hindu Books > Books By Rajaji > Kural - The Great Book Of Tiru-Valluvar

Kulapati's Preface

It is our intension to publish the books we select , not only in English, but also in the following Indian languages: Hindi, Bengal, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu etc.,

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Author

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, popularly known as 'Rajaji" or "C.R" was a great patriot, astute politician, incisive thinker, and one of the greatest of Indians.

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Foreword

Tirukkural is a poetic composition of great antiquity in the Tamil literature, many great minds have shed their powerful, radian light on this gem and justly famous classic of Tamil literature.

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Preface To The Original (Rochouse) Edition

Tiru - Valluvar's approach to moral doctrine is marked by a very through knowledge of human psychology and a desire to help imperfect men with practical hints in the struggle against evil.

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Preface To Revised Edition Of Kural

This is a thoroughly revised fourth edition of my book of selections from Tiru-Valluvar's great book.

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Dharma

There is no greater wealth one can acquire than Dharma and no misfortune greater than the forgetting of it.

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The Good House Holder

The householder so - called helps the other orders in the proper fulfilment of their duties.

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The Life - Partner

She is a true life companion who proves equal to the tasks of a householder's life, adjusting herself to the bread winner's resources.

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Children

Of all things that one may be blessed with , we can think of nothing equal to the house of having begot children who have grown up to true enlightenment:

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A Loving Disposition

Those who have not a loving disposition, belong wholly to themselves.

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An Open House

The only justification for a man to remain in family life and for acquiring and keeping property is that he may command the means by which help may be given to those who seek help.

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The Soft Word

The speech of enlightened men consists of truth soaked in affection:

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Gratitude

The good deed that is done not in return, but in the first instance, is more precious than anything in this world or beyond.

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Rectitude

The acquisition of a man of rectitude go down to his children without diminution and will protect them against adversity:

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Self - Control

Self - Control is as necessary a virtue for the house holder as for the recluse.

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The Regulated life

Discipline of life is more precious than life itself, for it is out of that discipline that life derives value.

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Unlawful Love

It is stupidity to entertain amorous thoughts about one who belongs to another.

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Forbearance

Does not the earth support the man that is engaged in digging it ?

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Do Not Envy

There is no greater wealth than the possession of a mind that is free from envy: ....

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Do Not Covet

Azhukkaru is envy, an inability to feel happy at the sight of another's well-being.

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Speak Not ill Of Others

you may sometimes speak the harshest things to a man's face.

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Avoid Worthless Talk

He who indulges in purposeless talk causing disgust to his company earns universal contempt.

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Conscience

The title of the chapter giving this and following couplets, is trepidation at the though of wrong-doing.

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Social Cooperation

What good did the creatures of the earth do to the clouds that pour the rain ?

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Helping The Poor

That alone is a gift which is given to the needy. Gifts to others are in the nature of business transactions where in what is given is expected to be duty returned.

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Public Esteem

Poverty is wealth if it is brought about for causes that raise a man in the esteem of the world.

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Compassion

Diverse are the teaching of the religions of the world, but in all will be found that compassion is that which gives men spiritual deliverance.

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Eat No Meat

How can a man adopt the way of compassion, goring on the flesh of other beings in order to fatten his own flesh ?

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Penance

When Kural was written the monastic life was common in South India. Tiru - Valluvar does not oppose it.

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Impure Life

If one has falsehood in his heart and secretly breaks the law of celibacy the five elements that watch from inside his body laugh at the futile fraud.

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Truthfulness

Truthfulness is attained if one's speech is such that it harms no being in the world.

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Against Anger

He truly is anger less who does not give vent to anger when the wrong doer is under his power.

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Do Not Cause Harm

The best punishment for those who do evil to you, is to shame them by returning good for evil.

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The Fleeting World

Like the crowd that gather to Seeta play comes dazzling wealth.

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Renunciation

As one by one you detach yourself from the things of the world you are saved from pain in respect of it.

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True Knowledge

Those who have learnt to perceive the Real will surely take the path leading to deliverance from rebirth.

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Renouncing Of Desire

The desirelessness recommended in Indian philosophy does not appeal to the modern mind which depends upon hope and faith in human heart.

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The Law Of Karma

The doctrine of Karma as enunciated in Hindu Shastras is accepted in toto and without any modification in the Kural.

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Vigilance

The neglectfulness that is apt to arise out of the intoxication of achievement is more harmful than even inordinate anger.

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Industriousness

Family virtues (i.e. inherited qualities) naturally persist, but are apt to disappear unless kept up by unflagging industry....

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The Strenuous Life

Let not the magnitude of any task unman you. Strenuous effort ever brings victory.

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Fortitude

One's spirit should not be broken down by misfortune, adversity or defeat.

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On Learning

The first thing laid down in Kural dealing with learning is the duty of relating one's conduct to one's knowledge.

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On Being Unlettered

The Tamil classics lay very great emphasis on education.

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Knowledge Through Listening

Knowledge acquired or confirmed by listening to the teachings and expeditions of learned men was a major division of learning in our ancient system.

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On Friendship

The Friendship of men of character is like the young moon which grows as the days pass.

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Folly

The biggest folly among follies is to cherish a desire for a prohibited object.

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Guard Against Deceivers

Protection against the heat of the sun is good. So also is water good.

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A Warning

The Wife is generally treated with great consideration in Kural.

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On Lust And Wine And Gambling

Thirty Kural couplets are devoted to warning men against lust, wine and gambling.

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On The Art Of Healing

Make a careful diagnosis, discover the true cause of the disease, think out the proper remedy, and apply it effectively.

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Self Respect

When you have wealth, cultivate humility; when your means are straitened, then it is that you should hold your head high.

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Glory

Glory consists in wealth of spirit. To decide to live though devoid of it is inglorious.

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Looking After The Tribe

The Tamil classics lay great stress on the duty of conserving the affection of relatives and dependents.

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Niggardliness

When wealth is neither enjoyed by oneself nor given to deserving persons, the possessor becomes a disease to society.

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Repugnance To Evil

The quick and instinctive shrinking from wrong and improper actions is one of the essential elements of good character.

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Unscrupulous Men

Strange indeed is the complete physical resemblance of the unscrupulous to the human species.

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On Agriculture

Many other industries may be taken up, but ultimately the world depends on agriculture.

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On Poverty

Poverty is vividly described in this verse.

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Labour

If the world were so ordered that one of it inhabitants must live in dependence and on the mercy of others.

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The Prosperous State

A Prince will be a lion among princes whose State has an adequate army.

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Action

In every action there are the three elements of loss, acquisition a nd value.

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Judging The Time

Is there anything impossible if the right means are adopted and the right hour is chosen ?

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Tactics

Till you find the place suitable for surrounding the opposing force, do not begin your attack.

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Choosing The Executive

Before entrusting a man with power, test his loyalty by putting him through trials in respect of his attachment to life, religion, wealth and pleasure.

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Good Ministers

The king's ministers are his eyes. So he should choose them with circumspection.

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Good Birth

To be born in a good family is useful qualification.

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Nobility

As non-killing is the most important element in the ascetic's duties, abstention is also.

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Just Rule

All dharma and all the codes of teacher are ultimately dependent on the king's good government.

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Oppression And Misrule

The oppressive king who misgoverns is a worse sinner than the murderer.

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Penalties

The principles of punishment are tersely put in the following verses.

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The Good Minister

A Minister should be resolute in action, have the welfare of the people at heart.

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Resoluteness

'Okkam' is the quality of mind which shows itself eagerness for action without weakening or wavering.

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On Spies

The departments of spies was in the old day considered one of the most important branches of the public service.

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The Art Of Persuasion

Tiru-Valluvar lays down that power of expression is an essential qualification for a successful councilor.

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Assembly Work

The minister had to deal not only with the king but with a council that sat to deliberate on affairs.

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The Moral Law

Kural insists on the moral law being followed in acts of State.

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The Dangers Of The Palace

These are precepts for those whose work keeps them near kings, telling them how to escape the dangers of courts.

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A Prosperous Nation

The requisites for prosperous State are industrious producers.

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Fortifications

Fortifications are as important for the prince who, confidents of his strength, sets out on aggressive operation.

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A Well Filled Exchequer

There is nothing so effective as wealth, which has the quality of giving worth even to worthless men.

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Efficiency In Action

We have here couplets dealing with the principle to be observed by an efficient minister.

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The Offensive

The chapter of Kural devoted to aggressive action by princes displays remarkable practical wisdom.

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The Army

Among all that a State should possess the most important is good army.

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Valour

In beautiful relief against the general did acetic style of Kural, here and there we land n sparkling poetry.

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About Envoys And Messengers

The qualification essential for a successful envoy are an affectionate temperament.

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Enemies

Even in jest do not entertain the wish to make an enemy of any one.

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On Citizenship

Kidseyal vogal is how to be a good citizen.

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Copyright © by Hindu Books Universe All Right Reserved.

Published on: 2003-02-06 (7846 reads)

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