land was plundered and pillaged. He had to fly to Kashmir. His son was taken prisoner.
Soon Mahmud was between two fires, the Turks under Hak Khan, who had
crossed the Oxus in Central Asia, and the Shahis. Then the generous culture of Aryavarta
impelled Anandapala to send a foolish message to his ruthless foe offering assistance:
"I have been conquered by you but I do not wish that another one should conquer
you."4 The tragedy of it was that Mahmud took the assistance, defeated Ilak Khan, and
with his victorious army turned on the generous Shahi in A.D. 1008. The conquest of India
is the conquest of culture by those who lacked it.
4 KY. 327-28