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Such people were obviously
speakers of Indo-European languages and were part of the
same culture. These same regions included the kingdom of Lord Krishna in Dwaraka and the famous
city of Takshashila in Gandhara from which the great grammarian
Panini derived, which shows that such a designation was only
That the Vedic people must exclude those of different ethnic
features or speaking non-Indo-European languages is an
assumption deriving from the Aryan invasion theory and its Aryan
race/language corollary. Vedic India was probably a pluralistic culture,
like the pluralistic Vedic pantheon. The Vedas are the only books
surviving from this era. This, however, does not mean that other
books or teachings did not exist, including those in other languages.
It may well be that the five Vedic peoples included groups who
spoke different, even non-Indo-European languages, or
belonged to different ethnic groups or different races.