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Women In The Sacred Laws
Kulapati's Preface The Author
Foreword Prologue
The Dharma Sutras Contemporary Evidence
The Manu - Samhita The Later Law-Books
Digest On Hindu Law Espirit Des Lois
Major Sections

CONTEMPORARY EVIDENCE

Contemporaneous with the legal literature of this period is the works of Kautilya (1) and Vatsyayana. The Artha Sastra of Kautilya records contemporary legal opinion of the 4th century B.C., outside the schools of Law. Some scholars, like Hillebrandt, would have it that the book does not belong to a particular author, but to a school existing in that name.

Their argument is mainly based on the occurrence of Iti Kautilya 72 times in the book. This doubt in regard to authorship has been met by others, but to a close examination of the internal and external evidence has cleared such doubts to some extent.

However, Kautilya was the Minister of the historical King Chandra Gupta, and, as such, his work provides, evidence of the society of his times. He lived at a time when the schools of law were progressing in the South, and his descriptions of conditions and laws are more reminiscent of the atmosphere of Northern India and especially of the courts of kings.

The third chapter of this book deals with marriage and subjects relating to women. He Kautilya begins his discourse by saying ‘Marriage precedes business.’ He enumerates, as do the lawgivers, eight kinds of marriages as legal: the Brahma, Prajapatya, Arsha, Daiva, Gandharva, Asura, Rakshasa and Paisacha. He defines them exactly as the other lawgivers.

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Women In The Sacred Laws
About Contemporary Evidence
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