If, on the other hand, the wife has not received the whole of the Sulka,
but only a part of it, she has to wait only three months. A wife who receives the whole of
it has to wait for her husband for five months. Then she may with
the permission of
judges, marry whomsoever she wishes.
Kautilya recognizes the remarriage of widows and the system of Niyoga.
In the cases of husbands who have gone abroad for long, who have become ascetics,
or who have been dead, their wives, having no issue, shall wait for them for seven
Then the wife may marry the brother of her husband. Where there are no
brothers of her husband, she may marry a person belonging to the same gotra.
At the end of the chapter Kautilya limits the range of remarriage to
the particular family. Thus he says, 'If a woman violates the above rule by remarrying one
who is not a kinsman of her husband, those that have given her in remarriage and those who
have given their consent to it shall all be liable to the punishment for elopement.
It is doubtful if this last part can be directly from Kautilya; for the
rule about there marriage of women whom their husbands abandon is similar to that of
Niyoga, and he does not prescribe any punishment for the violation of the rule. Moreover,
Kautilya is in substantial agreement with Vasishtha in laying down the intervals after
which a widow can remarry.