|In truth there
is no single deity called Indra or Shiva, or anything else. There is only the One Divine
with innumerable names, forms and functions. The Indian spiritual tradition has generally
formulated the supreme Divine as a deity of power, transcendence, independence and
transformation. That is the basis of both Indra and Shiva.
Given the basic identity of Indra an Shiva there is no reason to propose a pre- or
non-Vedic Shaivite religion in India. Shiva is present in Indra, as Indra takes another
form through Shiva.
There may have been other
related teachings in ancient India that vary in details from what we know of in the few
Vedic texts which have been preserved, like a Dravidian tradition of Shiva, Rudra or Indra
worship. However, such teachings would be part of a greater tradition and not contrary