Buddhist philosophy rejects any Ishwara or Cosmic Lord. The Mahayana philosophies, those
of the great vehicle, also regard Nature as Maya or illusion, or as the Void. They teach
non-dualism as well, so they are the Buddhist counterpart of the Mayavada, the Advaita
Vedanta teaching. However these Buddhist systems do not regard pure consciousness as Atma,
the inner Self, but see it as devoid of any sense of self. Some Buddhist systems, like the
Vijnanavada, use such terms as Prajnatman, or the Self of wisdom and thereby come closer
to the Vedantic view.
The Jains emphasize a path of action. As such, they did not develop
philosophy to a high degree, though they did have their philosophies. They considered it
of more importance to learn through action rather than through speculative thought.